Kirkpatrick Model and Training Effectiveness: A Meta-Analysis 1982 To 2021

  • Fahad Nawaz
  • Wisal Ahmed
  • Muhammad Khushnood


By examining the overall success of managerial training concerning Kirkpatrick's training effectiveness paradigm, this work seeks to contribute to the substantial contributions of prior 40-year research in the area. Additionally, this study seeks to assess the overall findings regarding its renowned levels, reaction, learning, behavior, and results of Kirkpatrick's training model and associations among these levels. Through a meta-analytic process, this study statistically extends and unifies the management training literature. The Kirkpatrick model was the subject of a meta-analysis that covered 41 papers (n=41) between 1982 and 2021. Although accommodating literary study regarding Kirkpatrick's four levels of the training assessing model recommended positive association among its distinct levels, the results do not indicate a significant development in the usefulness of managerial training from 1982 through 2021. The implications have a direct bearing on the choice of evaluation techniques for upcoming research on the effectiveness of management training programs. The academic world and practitioners both value this implication. The potential exclusion of prior research and the variety of assessment techniques employed in earlier studies—beyond the simple categories of objective and subjective assessment—are among the study's limitations. The fact that this study spans a significant amount of time is its key contribution. The approach thus provides a wider perspective on managerial training throughout time.
How to Cite
NAWAZ , Fahad; AHMED , Wisal; KHUSHNOOD , Muhammad. Kirkpatrick Model and Training Effectiveness: A Meta-Analysis 1982 To 2021 . Business & Economic Review, [S.l.], v. 14, n. 2, p. 35-56, oct. 2022. ISSN 2519-1233. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 29 may 2023.